Individualism-Collectivism and Social Capital


Allik, J. & Realo, A. (2004). “Individualism-Collectivism and Social Capital”. In Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35 (1), 29-49. London: SAGE Publications.

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ISSN: 1552-5422

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Type of work: Article (academic)




Many social scientists have predicted that one inevitable consequence of modernization is the unlimited growth of individualism, which poses serious threats to the organic unity of society. Others have argued that autonomy and independence are necessary conditions for the development of interpersonal cooperation and social solidarity. We reanalyzed available data on the relationship between individualism-collectivism and social capital within one country (the United States) and across 42 countries. In America, the states with a high level of social capital (higher degree of civic engagement in political activity, where people spend more time with their friends and believe that most people can be trusted) were found to be more individualistic. A correspondingly strong association between individualism and social capital was observed in the comparison of different countries. These results support Durkheim’s view that whenindividualsbecomemoreautonomous and seemingly liberated from social bonds, they actually become even more dependent on society.