Smart city, smart policing Prof. Dr. Dr. Juan José Medina Ariza. Professor of Criminology (University of Manchester)
Security has traditionally been based on a top-down visions, a centralized control room.
Many municipalities have sort of “dashboards” that map the city crime, security issues, socio-economic indicators, etc.
These dashboards aim at locating clusters where more crime takes place, identifying the determinants or correlating factors of that crime, etc. After this clustering and correlations, one can create tools that can try to predict crime, based on trends and simulations. And once crime is “predicted”, then comes “predicted policing”, that aims at stopping crime just before it takes place, going to the place where crime is most likely to happen.
Problems when opening data: What happens when we open the data? How legitimate is its collection? How fair is its analysis?
The risks of Campbell’s law: the more one uses an indicator for decision-making purposes, the less it is useful for decision-making purposes, as it use imprints a bias into the indicator itself.
We know too that in some cases, there are biases in citizens reporting crime: many of them will not be eager to report crime, because this will diminish the value of their real state, because of own security reasons, etc.
What’s next? From predicting hotspots to individual predictions. A growing awareness about the problems with algorithms. Going back to measuring what matters. Privatised criminal justice is not science fiction any longer.
On the other hand, we will maybe see a rise in transparency in what relates to police practices, like stop and search.
Physical and Online Privacy: fundamental challenges for level frameworks to remain relevant. Prof. Dr. E.J. Koops. Professor of Regulation & Technology (Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society)
Is it legal, or should it be allowed to:
Scan homes with termal equipped drones in search of hemp domestic plantations?
Take a snapshot of a stranger, google them, recognize their faces, peek at their social networking profiles and start a conversation with them on their preferences?
Track people inside shops with wifi-tracking, analyze their movements in the shop and thus place advertising on the counter?
Conceptual history of locating privacy:
The body (habeas corpus): physical privacy.
The home: physical privacy + private space.
The letter: physical privacy + closed ‘space’ between homes.
The telephone: ‘closed’ ‘space’ between homes.
Mobile phone: ‘closed’ ‘space’.
The computer: protecting data, not spaces.
The cloud: loss of location.
The home evaporates. There is a lot of information that now one can access without entering a home. And, usually, looking inside without entry is allowed. Same happens now with technology and digital data. The public space is increasingly becoming privacy-sensible: increased traceability, increased identifiability (face recognition, augmented reality)…
And with the trend to improve body functions through implants and prosthesis, the body itself sort of becomes a “public space” as its data (including brain stimuli) can be exported out of the body.
It is increasingly difficult to draw the technical distinction between traffic data and content of communications, particularly on an Internet context. The distinction, indeed, is becoming less relevant, as traffic data are also increasingly privacy-sensitive (location, profiling).
Data protection law cannot give individuals control over their data.
Too much confidence in the controller/regulator: the law is becoming too complex.
Regulating everything in one statutory law: impossibility for comprehensiveness.
DCCPP = PRIVACY BY DESIGN Direct Current Communications & Privacy Protocol (DCCPP) proposed for a privacy protective DC Smart Grid E.M. Wesselingh, P. van Willigenburg, H. Stokman
A new system to manage appliances where privacy is built in by design.
This is a two layer DC smart-grid. The first layer is the home environment with many appliances that use DC electrical energy such as laptops and tablets, smartphones, TVs, LED lights. The second part of the proposed design covers the street-side of the electrical distribution grid. Separating these grids, a higher degree of safety and privacy is enabled.
De-mediation processes and their impact on legal ordering –Lessons l. earned from Uber conflict Mariona Rosell-Llorens
Some norms regarding ICTs have proven to be ineffective (e.g. intellectual property rights), though some efficacy depends on acceptance. What makes a city smart is to profit from its community’s input. Seems like the grounds of law are disconnected fro current practices. The theory of the legal system is not receptive enough. Better laws need better legal theory.
De-mediation processes and Uber: de-mediation is related with autonomy. ICTs and appservices provide individuals a capacity ofr acting without interference of traditional intermediaries. Autonomy understood in the sense of empowerment, user participation, community building.
But then participants experience law. What happens when participants by-pass the formally enacted law? How participants experience legality thanks to ICTs?
We maybe need a better informed legal theory, based on social grounds. It is not a matter of legitimacy, but a better informed norm. We need more reasonable and sensible laws, “new” conceptual tools.
Barrio Digital [digital neighbourhood]: the way towards the digital city Manuel Dávila Sguerra
The idea of the project was the creation of a smart city within the Minuto de Dios neighbourhood in Engativá (Bogotá). 1,200 students geolocated data from the neighbourhood. This enabled a next step consisting in adding the “social layer” to the map.
1,075 shoppers where characterized. The shoppers were trained by the students so that they learnt how to use certain devices and access to information.
Augmented reality was used to put services on the map, including cultural venues, so that the citizen could know what was around him, just by using their smartphone on the street.
Courses on digital literacy, especially for disabled people.
Bottom-up vision: the smartest cities are the ones that embrace openness, randomness and serendipity.
Ismael Peña-López: how do we tell the difference between adapting the law to fair practices and legalizing unfair behaviours? Mariona Rosell-Llorens: while we should keep safe some important principles, it is also true that society is increasingly complex and, thus, the traditional way of approving a law — mostly with a dominant top-down approach — is outdated and should be complemented with a higher observation (even concurrence) of what happens on the street, a more bottom-up approach.
E-government and transparency Chairs: Agustí Cerrillo
And open and transparent government paradigm in middle Spanish municipalities: the case of Quart de Poblet Joaquín Martín Cubas, Laura Juan y Juan Medina Cobo
The open government initiative was about creating a dialogue, between the citizen, the Administration and the political representatives.
The issue of the digital divide has been addressed with a digital literacy programme. A programme that, beyond just literacy, it was aimed at social inclusion.
Open government is transparency, but not just transparency: it is a new organizational model.
Participation in the new open government initiative was inspired by Irekia, the open government platform of the Basque government.
Transparency for the sake of transparency? Or to achieve an open government? An opportunity for innovation in the governance of the university Gemma Geis Carreras, Annaïs Varo Barranco, Daniel Cantalosella Font
The application of the new Catalan Law on Transparency made the University of Girona decide that they would implement an open government initiative in the university.
The project includes not only knowledge diffusion and accountability, but also opening up platforms and channels for participation.
The new portal also features the electronic seat of the University of Girona, which includes electronic voting features.
Transparen cities, intelligent procurement. Analysis of the impact of ICTs in procurement transparency in municipalities Jordi Romeu Granados, Gregorio Juárez Rodríguez, Carmen Pineda Nebot
Theoretical framework: public procurement, transparency in public procurement, smart cities.
Analysis of different municipalities and their use of public procurement. 22 indicators that build the ITCA index, including the profile of the public contractor, the ITA 2014 from Transparency International and what applies by the Spanish Transparency Law 19/2013.
Findings say that more transparency in procurement highly correlates with transparency in general, an aim for innovation and work towards a smart city paradigm, etc.
Q: what is the cost of such initiatives? Juan Medina: It depends. On the one hand, some infrastructures are expensive. But, on the other hand, changing the way the Administration works and, most especially, changing the attitudes of the public representatives is almost costless. And the impact may be much higher than putting up costly projects without change of attitudes.
Jordi Romeu: there is a problem in measuring open government and it is that measuring usually ends at the output level, and almost never reaches the outcome level.
New democratic movements, political culture and models of democracy José Luis Martí, Laura Roth
We are beginning to contest the assumption that not voting is not participating in politics. And it is increasingly clear that it is not so: participation in extra-representative politics is becoming more important and will most likely be. Under this new train of though, what should be the profile of the “good citizen” in terms of political participation and engagement?
There is a first factor that needs being reframed. Most literature on social capital, participation in organizations, etc. seems not to be fitting what current ways of participation are to be found in new social and political movements. It looks like citizens begin to have new approaches, new attitudes, new cultures of participation that are just not compatible with old school participation models.
The traditional model: citizens are like readers that read the “book of ideas” of their representatives. But little more.
The accountability model: addedd to “reading the book”, they can comment on it, they can compare what they see with their own position, etc.
The participative model: citizens are also authors of the “book” while representatives are like “editors” who put the ideas or proposals into practice. New values like toerance, equity. Also new skills.
Networked democracy: citizens are authors, editors and readers of the “books” created by the collective. This model is a total rupture with the preceding models.
Open politics and participation. The case of Podemos Vicenta Tasa Fuster, Anselm Bodoque Arribas
There is a confrontation between what some call old politics and new politics, the latter being characterized by an intensive use of technology and highly valuing participation.
Participation: in a democratic sense, participation only has sense if it is permanent, open, free and deliberative (Joan Subirats).
Podemos has fostered participation, but it has decreased over time, and never reached 50% of the members of the party. They use a combination of platforms and tools (Appgree, Loomio, Reddit, Impulsa, the Talent Bank, Doodle, TitanPad, Google Groups and Google Drive, etc.).
When it comes to internal organization, it is difficult to tell new from old politics. But in matters of participation, there may be a difference.
After several participation processes, the average in Spain is that only 27% of the members of the party participated in voting for their representatives to be secretary general in their respective regions. For the primary elections (March 2015) participation was even lower (circa 23%).
Why this low participation when the party self-defines itself as participatory? ESpecially relevant, as the newcomers should be, in theory, highly motivated. And the barriers to vote were very low, as they only required and ID and a connection to the Internet. Different reasons:
Different degree of organization and definition of the own interests: there are many ways in which people participate.
People that always participate.
People that only participate in some specific issues of their interest.
Partisans that are not very organized.
Partisans that never participate.
Gender divide. Women usually have less time to participate, due to domestic burdens, sheer discrimination, etc.
Digital divide. Relevant if the main (if not the only) means to participate is digital and requiring high digital skills. In addition, we know that there is a gender divide within the digital divide.
Different reasons of the partisans. Most leaders in Podemos are men, and many topics raised in the participation platforms are genuinely masculine.
Digital divide and gender María José Senent Vidal
We see that the digital divide has an important gender component, especially when it comes to usage and advanced uses (second and third digital divides).
Ability to access.
Ability and control of use.
Advanced uses, participation in processes of decision and creation.
Right to digital inclusion.
Overcoming of stereotypes.
Albert Batlle: is Podemos faking participation but its design is aimed at making participation difficult? Bodoque: It is not clear. There seems to be an opposition of factors and values. On the one hand, Podemos was born thanks to participation, on the other hand, the more the party grows, the more difficult to manage participation. It is also true that the decrease in participation may also be due to the fading of the newness factor and tiredness of several participation processes.
David Martínez: how sustainable are these new forms of political participation? Can we put into practice such a model of democracy? José Luís Martí: the 15M was not about decision-making, was about deliberation. This is a difference with Podemos, which is a party and wants to make decisions, but it also gives some ideas on the nature of Podemos and what they think about participation: it’s about deliberation, and about doing it outside of the institutions, on one’s everyday life. On the other hand, it is not only internal participation that matters, but also general participation of the citizen.
José Luís Martí: it has been said that participation in Podemos was low. But, how do we tell low from high? How do we compare? Vicenta Tasa: there are two clear concentric circles in Podemos, one that leads and participates the whole time, another one in the periphery and with much less engagement. Anselm Bodoque: it’s true, that in general terms people in Podemos participate, deliberate and vote much more than in other political parties. But still, one would expect like more excitation in the ranks of Podemos.
Anselm Bodoque: it is important to highlight the motivation factor and the false sense of equality in participation. It is just not true that everyone participates in equal conditions in participatory processes: some people organize and some don’t. And the ones that organize are more effective and efficient that the lone wolves.
Open smart cities: ¿whose are the data? Julián Valero Torrijos, Juan Ramón Robles Albero
Whose are the data gathered by some smart cities initiatives? This question is especially relevant when many public services are managed by private firms. It’s interesting because these are data that are needed to provide the service, and thus private firms do need them. But, on the other hand, these data is generated by the user and thus likely to be ownership of the citizen. How do we solve this?
Our conclusion is that most data should be regulated as usual, protecting the citizen, etc. But. In some cases, especially when it deals about the know how of the private firm and how to improve the provision of the service, in some of these cases maybe data should remain property of the private firm, as it is part of their know how and own protocols and processes.
Smart mobility, data protection and social surveillance Alessandro Mantelero
We are moving towards a pervasive data ecosystem. Big data and the Internet of Things are having an impact on individual and collective data protection, a need for balancing conflicts of interests, and have to move from a theoretical approach to an empirical approach, as the smart mobility case. We need to address open data and risk assessment, such as the factors that increase the risk of re-identification, and the different levels of access to mobility data. Examples: the London bike-sharing case or the user-centric approach adopted in the Piedmont case.
In the cases above, many data and at many levels is gathered, including personal information and travel information. Data protection is applied by design, both at the collection, storage and access and analysis of the datasets.
Conclusions: proportionality, risk-assessment, empower the citizen.
Urban governance and smart cities. The case of Barcelona Mariona Tomàs Fornés
Since the end 0f 1980s we are facing a new concept of governance. Global governance is a process of coordination of actors, social groups, institutions to reach certain goals that have been debated and defined collectively. It implies a change in decision-making and policy-making. It includes different geographical scales, new public and private actors, etc. The hypothesis of this work is that the development of the smart city implies a shift towards the pro-growth model.
Goals for the case of the smarty city in Barcelona: based on efficiency, sustainability and a mix of several projects of many kinds put together under the umbrella of ‘smart cities’. Many of these projects already existed and the city council just rephrases them under this common umbrella.
The city council will transform the city into a urban lab so that the city (and the citizen) can be used as a lab by technological firms so that they can test initiatives, devices, etc.
How has the urban governance of Barcelona changed after their involvement in smart city projects? The participation of the private sector in financing urban projects has definitely increased, as has been the scheduling of big international events and culture as a development strategy. Citizen participation still is important, but somehow it seems that the usual spaces of participation have not been integrated with other initiatives and spaces more related to the smart city strategy. On the other hand, there is less strategic planning and less new institutions to lead new projects: private firms do not seem to be interested in strategic planning and new institutions have been replaced by ad hoc created public-private partnerships.
Barcelona is a typical case of conceiving the smart city within the principles of the entrepreneurial city: competitiveness, growth policies, use of public-private partnerships.
Pierre (1999) proposes different models of urban governance: