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Clement, A. & Shade, L.R. (1998). The Access Rainbow: Conceptualizing Universal Access to the Information/Communicatioins Infrastructure. Information Policy Research Program, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto. Working Paper No. 10. Toronto: IPRP University of Toronto. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from
Essalmawi, H. (Ed.) (2009). The Access to knowledge movement: Opportunities, Challenges and the Road Ahead. Bibliotheca Alexandria Access to Knowledge Toolkit II. Alexandria: Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Retrieved October 30, 2009 from
The Atlantic Monthly . Boston: Atlantic Monthly Group Inc..
Kerckhove, D.d. (2005). The Biases of Electricity. Inaugural Lecture of the UOC 2005-2006 Academic Year. Barcelona: UOC. Retrieved January 17, 2007 from
Beard, T.R., Ford, G.S. & Spiwak, L.J. (2009). The Broadband Adoption Index: Improving Measurements and Comparisons of Broadband Deployment and Adoption. Policy Paper Number 36. Washington, D.C.: Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal and Economic Public Policy Studies. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from
Peña-López, I. (2018). The building of new citizen governance models: from technopolitics to open government. Lecture at the Master in City & Technology, Insitute for advanced architecture of Catalonia, 26 January 2018, Barcelona. Barcelona: IAAC. Retrieved January 26, 2018 from
Daniels, H., Cole, M. & Wertsch, J.V. (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Vygotsky. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2014). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. 2nd editionCambridge University Press.
Raymond, E.S. (1999). The Cathedral & the Bazaar. (revised edition: original edition 1999). Sebastopol: O’Reilly.
Peña-López, I. (2014). The challenge of being (professionally) connected. Keynote at the EAFT Terminology Summit, 27 November 2014. Barcelona: EAFT. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from
Sciadas, G. (2004). The Challenge of Indicators. Lessons from the Information Society. Presentation given at the Red de Indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnologia (RICYT), Buenos Aires, September 15-17, 2004. Buenos Aires: RICYT. Retrieved June 14, 2006 from
Anderson, A.A. (2006). The Community Builder's Approach to Theory of Change. A practical guide to theory development. New York: The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change.
Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
The CTO Guide to the ICT . [online]: CTO. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from
Hewitt de Alcántara, C. (2001). The Development Divide in a Digital Age. An Issues Paper. Technology, Business and Society Programme Paper Number 4. August 2001. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved May 30, 2008 from$FILE/hewitt.pdf
Peña-López, I. & Adell, J. (2010). The Dichotomies in Personal Learning Environments and Institutions. Keynote speech at the Personal Learning Environments (PLE) Conference. Cornellà de Llobregat: Citilab. Retrieved July 09, 2010 from
Rochon, L. (2012). The Dictator’s practical Internet guide to power retention. Rotterdam: Laurier Rochon. Retrieved August 24, 2012 from
Huang, J. & Russell, S. (2006). “The digital divide and academic achievement”. In The Electronic Library, 24 (2), 160-173. [online]: Emerald.
Hargittai, E. (2003). “The Digital Divide and What To Do About It”. In Jones, D.C. (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, Chapter 35. San Diego: Academic Press.
van Dijk, J. & Hacker, K. (2000). The Digital Divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Acapulco, 1-5 June 2000. Acapulco: International Communication Association.
Van Deursen, A. & van Dijk, J. (2013). “The digital divide shifts to differences in usage”. In New Media & Society, 16 (3), 507-526. London: SAGE Publications.
Milner, H.V. (2006). “The Digital Divide: The Role of Political Institutions in Technology Diffusion”. In Comparative Political Studies, Volume 39, (No 2, March 200), pp 176-199. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Peña-López, I. (2006). The Digital Divides or the third industrial revolution: concepts and figures. Presentation given in Trento, May 25th, 2006 in the homonimous seminar organized by the ICT International Doctorate School of the Università degli Studi Trento. Trento: Università degli Studi Trento. Retrieved May 25, 2006 from
Adkinson Jr., W.F., Lenard, T.M. & Pickford, M.J. (2004). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Sixth Edition, 2004. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Lenard, T.M. & Pickford, M.J. (2005). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Seventh Edition, 2005. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Lenard, T.M. & Britton, D.B. (2006). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Eighth Edition, 2006. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Britton, D.B. & McGonegal, S. (2007). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Ninth Edition, 2007. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Conover, M.D., Ferrara, E., Menczer, F. & Flammini, A. (2013). “The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street”. In PLOS ONE, 8 (5). San Francisco: Public Library of Science. Retrieved July 07, 2013 from
Schradie, J. (2011). “The digital production gap: The digital divide and Web 2.0 collide”. In Poetics, 34 (4-5). Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V..
Peña-López, I. (2006). The e-readiness layers: thresholds and relationships. Communication given in Egham, September 15th, 2006 at the ICT4D Symposium organized by the Royal Holloway University of London. Egham: Royal Holloway University of London. Retrieved September 15, 2006 from
Heeks, R. & Kenny, C.J. (2002). The Economics of ICTs and Global Inequality: Convergence or Divergence for Developing Countries?. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.10a/2002. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved May 08, 2008 from
The Economist . London: The Economist.
Selwyn, N. (2010). The educational significance of social media – a critical perspective. keynote debate at Ed-Media conference 2010, Toronto, 28th June to 2nd July. Toronto: Selwyn. Retrieved June 03, 2010 from
Bet, G., Cristia, J. & Ibarrarán, P. (2014). The Effects of Shared School Technology Access on Students’ Digital Skills in Peru. IDB Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP-476. New York: Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from
the encyclopaedia of informal education . London: YMCA George Williams College, London.
Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). “The Era of Open Innovation”. In MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2003, 35-41. Cambridge: MIT Sloan School of Management.


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