Amartya Sen revolutionized the concept of human development by presenting his capability approach. From his point of view, it is not enough to have physical access to resources, but, in addition, one must be able to put them to the benefit of oneself. This step from objective choice to subjective choice has been completed in recent years with a third stage of development: effective choice. According to that, it is not enough to have resources, or to want or know how to use them, but, moreover, it is necessary that one is allowed to do so. Indeed, it is the strengthening of democratic institutions what has recently been at the center of debates around human development and, by extension, social inclusion.
In a digital world, in the Information and Knowledge Society, it is easy to establish comparisons between these three stages of development with the three digital divides that have been identified since the term made its fortune in the mid-1990s.
- The first digital divide is one that refers to access (or lack thereof) to technological infrastructures. A gap that, although persisting, will soon be residual as economies achieve certain income thresholds.
- The second digital divide refers to skills, the so-called digital literacy. A gap that schools, libraries and telecentres have been tackling as a priority for some years.
- The third digital divide, which adds up to (and does not replace) the former two, refers to the strategic use of ICTs to improve one’s life. We speak of online education, e-health or technopolitics, to mention only three cases where this gap is already more than patent.
This third gap, opened relatively recently, is quickly widening with the increasing presence in our lives of teleassistance, online training or political participation through social networks and spaces of deliberation, etc.
Therefore, social inclusion, and by extension the active exercise of citizenship, will increasingly depend on that third level e-inclusion, which enables a development based on full objective, subjective and effective choices.
It is likely that there will be no democracy, health or education without the active participation of citizens in these aspects.
Available data tell us that while the first digital divide is getting smaller and smaller, the second (skills) is increasingly important (especially in relative and qualitative terms: there are no more people, but they do see themselves as more digital illiterates) and, consequently, it contributes to enlarge the third one, that in many cases ends up with a flat rejection to everything that has to do with digital technology.
The so-called digital refuseniks are a group generally neglected when it comes to addressing social inclusion policies, with the probable outcome that they will be the great excluded of a society that, today, is building heavily on digital participation.
In an age of participation, engagement, co-building, it is to expect that there will be no greater active exercise of citizenship without greater and better use of the Internet; and there will be no greater and better use of the Internet if the problem of effective use of the Net is not addressed beyond physical access to infrastructures and beyond digital literacy.
As it has been stated above, there are three areas — health, learning and democracy — that are today the three most important areas (besides economic, often determined by the three previous ones) where social inclusion will be determined especially by the respective degree of e-inclusion of a given person… or an institution.
The recent achievements that have come from social innovation, open innovation and open social innovation are virtually inexplicable without that desire for an emancipated citizenship enabled by ICTs.
Peña-López, I. (2015b). “Política, tecnopolítica y desarrollo digital
”. In Cristianisme i Justícia (Ed.), ¿Qué nos jugamos? Reflexiones para un año electoral
, 12-14. Colección Virtual nº10. Barcelona: Cristianisme i Justícia.
Tarbal, A. (2015). “TIC y salud, un binomio saludable para todos
”. In Roca, G. (Coord.), Las nuevas tecnologías en niños y adolescentes. Guía para educar saludablemente en una sociedad digital, Capítulo 1
, 21-37. Barcelona: Hospital Sant Joan de Déu.
Ideathon workshops takeaways
Open data portals and engagement mechanisms
Who is a user of the open data portal? After identifying the user, a user list sorted by priority should be drawn.
Scholars should explain what open data is and promote it’s use.
Free open data management tools.
Keep data updated and update it and make it known.
How do tell the quality of open data? How do we know about its usage?
We have a lot of data, but we lack the storytelling, the visuals.
What makes sense for a government, what can work for them, what makes sense for technicians.
We need open data champions.
The charter seems simple but its application is complex. It is a good idea to ‘deconstruct’ it principle by principle, recommendation by recommendation, and go step by step while aiming for the whole.
Create networks of cities that have adopted the charter and see how they did it.
Competitiveness and economic development
We have to identify what is the problem. But not like “unemployment is the problem” but more focused on people. And then, try to come up with an idea that most people will quickly understand because it relies with some other familiar initiative (e.g. “Facebook for dogs”).
We can create the “Tinder for data”, a meta-data portal for open data. It would identify data that could be open and thus create opportunities.
Smart and resilient cities
Bring the users in the design of the projects.
Identify the key role players and establish communication strategies among them.
How do we enable the measurement of vulnerability and how to address it. What defines a resilient city.
Interdisciplinary collaboration and organizational change
Better name: culture change for common understanding.
Start with the challenge.
Creating common context.
Actively create and maintain feedback.
Go across disciplines and across sectors.
Interaction between civil society organizations and between civil society organizations and governments.
Entrepreneurs, SMEs, etc.: they might find hard to find the kind of information that is relevant to them. What are they needs? What are the usual tasks that require data? Awareness on their needs and awareness of the possibilities of open data.
Try and draw a chronological story of data for firms: When starting a business, what is the information that you need? What is the government spending (procurement) in the field? What is the budget and what is the execution of that budget. Do I have benefits for operating in this field? What are the trends in my area?
Making city services accessible
It is very difficult for people to see the safety net, to know what public services can one citizen access.
To build a healthy ecosystem, accessible, interoperable, sustainable, that relates referral providers and social service services.
Standards and interoperability
A good way to understand standards and interoperability is by looking at the path that goes from raw data to indicators, in an aggregation process.
The big issue is that standards apply to very small portions of reality, while reality is much more complex. Open data, smart cities, open government, etc. begin to create their own specific (ad hoc) standards that often overlap.
Who provides the data and how?
Who will reuse the data and how?
4th International Data Conference (2016)
Petcha Kucha presentations of the eight projects developed along Visualizar’16 international workshop at Medialab-Prado (26 September – 5 October
Presented by José Luis de Vicente
staDAtus: a way to escape the Desert of Knowledge
Most of research results are not transparent. On the other hand, most citizens neither realize the importance of transparency nor where to get the data in case they would like to. staDatus aims at showing the state of transparency/open data portals.
staDatus is a community-based/crowdsourced project. It creates templates so that citizens can track and assess portals, especially according to what the law says. These tools will be designed with gamification methodologies in able to help citizens.
The project is made up by artists and architects and focuses on the solid waste that cities produce, with the aim to raise awareness on this issue. Another goal is to democratize art.
An app has been developed to help citizens and urban artists to share their works and to enable interaction between citizens and urban art.
The project aims at monitoring the behaviour of visitors in cultural institutions. Museums need to know what visitors do, what do they do, how do they move in order to be able to give them the best experience.
Re-thinking the museum has to take into consideration storytelling, interaction, etc.
The project has developed an app that mixes tracking with augmented reality. As the visitor moves inside the museum, the application will give the visitor (augmented reality) information, enable interaction, etc. On the other hand, this will also produce tracking data that the museum can use to reflect on the exposition or the cultural activity.
Goal: show/visualize the concerts happening all over the world as a galaxy/constellation according to the musical gender. Data comes from last.fm
The visualization can help to identify music styles geographic clusters, or how e.g. minority styles spread and evolve.
What is the resilience of a city regarding its manufacturing, distribution and consumption of goods?
What is the role of citizens in shaping a Fab City with open, distributed and collaborative initiatives?
A dashboard has been created to monitor eleven measurements for the resilience of a city.
The dashboard can also be used to measure the impact of a given project on resilience on the city.
Goal: Mapping micro-conflicts through people experiences.
(Please follow the link above. See also http://commonactionforum.net/projects/)
Information about health, people and social services. From long documents in PDF format to structured open data.
An application makes it easy to scrap, store and publish data. And it can be done in a crowdsourced way.
apps4citizens is a collection of apps for citizen action.
An app has been deployed to map these apps in the territory using Quadrigram.
4th International Data Conference (2016)
Expert panel on what is an open city: emerging trends, scaling opportunities, strengthening networks.
Moderator: Antonio Moneo-Laín (IADB)
Barbara Ubaldi, OECD
Open data needs cities because cities know who the local actors are.
Because open data is about action.
Networks of cities — within the country or at the international level — are very important.
Jean-Noé Landry, Open North
How do we reconcile the opportunity of open data with the resilience of cities.
Most of the global open data movement has been led by citizens, nonprofits, etc. How can local governments empower these actors?
It is important what happens before data is released, what are the ethics behind making data available.
Where does the demand come from? Who has the means to ask for data? We have to look into that carefully.
Stephen Larrick, Sunlight
How do we scale local open data programmes and make them global (and sustainable)?
Risk-aversion can be “medicated” by showing that your programme works in another place.
Open formats also help to connect with other actors, to scale up.
If open data is not only about data but about decentralization of democracy, about engagement of the citizen, then this ethos has to be included in the very design of any open data initiative.
We have to link engagement to specific needs. Start with the needs of citizens, not with open data.
Dinand Tinholt, European Data
How do we make open data a priority?
Build upon what others are doing.
It is important that there also is an economic insight in open data. It may not be very “sexy” but it is important to bring in companies that will use open data for profit, as they contribute to make the system sustainable, to foster demand and to maintain it live.
4th International Data Conference (2016)
City leaders panel: local issues and open data solutions, lessons learned, and setting short and long terms priorities
Moderator: Alex Howard, Sunlight Foundation, What Works Cities initiative
Juan Prada, City of Montevideo (Uruguay)
The main reason to open data is the belief that data belongs to the citizen, not to agencies. Why should the citizen be charged for the use of their own data?
In 2008 the government began its open data strategy. After an initial publication of data, the government focused on enabling the creation of open data based services developed by the citizens, such as the adaptation of Fix My Street for Montevideo.
The service behind the open data initiative acts as thus, as a service, and so has a help-desk and an analysis unit to monitor usage and make proposals of new data sets to be published, etc.
Víctor Morlán, City of Zaragoza (Spain)
Same belief as Uruguay: access to data and public information is a basic right for citizens.
Now, all services that the City Council website creates use open data as a main source. Thus, there is no need to maintain different databases and services: open data becomes useful for the City Council itself.
Privacy is dealt with in the open data initiative, and everything that is published has gone through a thorough process of compliance with the law.
Stephane Contre, City of Edmonton (Canada)
After a first deployment, the big effort now has been publishing a “data analytics website” so that people that are neither tech-savvy or data-savvy can query the data themselves.
One of the big impact has been the internal use of open data. Using specific algorithms you can use open data to improve municipal services.
4th International Data Conference (2016)
Keynote: Amen Ra Mashariki, Chief Analytics Officer, New York City
After several milestones on open data and open governmetn, in 2015 New York City released its Open Data For All programme. Its aim, to actually increase the use and reuse of open data by all citizens, not just a bunch of them. Open data has to be available for all, meaning that data should be able to be used by anyone, anywhere and anytime.
Start with users
NYC made some research on who the users were and how did they use data.
Human-centered design was applied to improve the portal, and think on the portal not as a repository, but as a service.
In partnership with New York University, the portal made that you —as an individual, as a community— you could
find yourself in the data, you have to feel that you are represented there. If a policy is implemented and you are not there, the policy will not affect you. So, main issues/problems/needs were identified and the date was put into motion to illustrate or lay the foundations of these issues and the policies to address them.
For instance, an Open Data Powerty model was designed using data on community concerns, infrastructures, representation, demographics, etc.
Encourage purposeful engagement
e.g. Organise hackathons and other ways of constructive engagement that has a meaning not for the city, but for the individual citizen too.
Agencies have many missions and goals, and opening data usually is not one of them. Thus, they will not dedicate a part of the budget to it, no matter how insistent you are on that. So, how do we bring agencies to open up data? And make it meaningful to them?
First thing is to address standards. Try and have agencies applying standards in their data management, so that they can be reused elsewhere, or that they can “talk” to other data sets. This will sooner or later create synergies and help agencies not to open data but to achieve their own goals, which is what they really care about.
Treat publishing as the middle of opening data
When you get data from an agency, most of it does not make sense to you, out of the agency’s context. So you partner with them and try to understand their data so that you can bring them to light. For the agency, publishing data is the end; for you, publishing data is just the middle, as there is a lot of work to be done still.
Integrate Open Data into citywide processes
Case: The NYPD Was Systematically Ticketing Legally Parked Cars for Millions of Dollars a Year — Open Data Just Put an End to It. If citizens can have access to open data, they can help improve the city in many ways. So, it is not only about “data journalism” and publishing news, etc. but also about engaging in citizen processes.
You have to work to change the complexion of the community. You have to work to empower people to believe that they can make a change, that they can participate, that they can help to improve the city.
Learn, test, standardize — and learn again
Reflect about the whole process and improve it.
4th International Data Conference (2016)