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Raymond, E.S. (1999). The Cathedral & the Bazaar. (revised edition: original edition 1999). Sebastopol: O’Reilly.
Peña-López, I. (2014). The challenge of being (professionally) connected. Keynote at the EAFT Terminology Summit, 27 November 2014. Barcelona: EAFT. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from
Sciadas, G. (2004). The Challenge of Indicators. Lessons from the Information Society. Presentation given at the Red de Indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnologia (RICYT), Buenos Aires, September 15-17, 2004. Buenos Aires: RICYT. Retrieved June 14, 2006 from
The CTO Guide to the ICT . [online]: CTO. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from
Hewitt de Alcántara, C. (2001). The Development Divide in a Digital Age. An Issues Paper. Technology, Business and Society Programme Paper Number 4. August 2001. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved May 30, 2008 from$FILE/hewitt.pdf
Peña-López, I. & Adell, J. (2010). The Dichotomies in Personal Learning Environments and Institutions. Keynote speech at the Personal Learning Environments (PLE) Conference. Cornellà de Llobregat: Citilab. Retrieved July 09, 2010 from
Rochon, L. (2012). The Dictator’s practical Internet guide to power retention. Rotterdam: Laurier Rochon. Retrieved August 24, 2012 from
Huang, J. & Russell, S. (2006). “The digital divide and academic achievement”. In The Electronic Library, 24 (2), 160-173. [online]: Emerald.
Hargittai, E. (2003). “The Digital Divide and What To Do About It”. In Jones, D.C. (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, Chapter 35. San Diego: Academic Press.
van Dijk, J. & Hacker, K. (2000). The Digital Divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Acapulco, 1-5 June 2000. Acapulco: International Communication Association.
van Deursen, A. & van Dijk, J. (2013). “The digital divide shifts to differences in usage”. In New Media & Society, 16 (3), 507-526. London: SAGE Publications.
Milner, H.V. (2006). “The Digital Divide: The Role of Political Institutions in Technology Diffusion”. In Comparative Political Studies, Volume 39, (No 2, March 200), pp 176-199. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Peña-López, I. (2006). The Digital Divides or the third industrial revolution: concepts and figures. Presentation given in Trento, May 25th, 2006 in the homonimous seminar organized by the ICT International Doctorate School of the Università degli Studi Trento. Trento: Università degli Studi Trento. Retrieved May 25, 2006 from
Adkinson Jr., W.F., Lenard, T.M. & Pickford, M.J. (2004). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Sixth Edition, 2004. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Lenard, T.M. & Pickford, M.J. (2005). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Seventh Edition, 2005. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Lenard, T.M. & Britton, D.B. (2006). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Eighth Edition, 2006. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Britton, D.B. & McGonegal, S. (2007). The Digital Economy Fact Book. Ninth Edition, 2007. Washington, D.C.: The Progress & Freedom Foundation.
Conover, M.D., Ferrara, E., Menczer, F. & Flammini, A. (2013). “The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street”. In PLOS ONE, 8 (5). San Francisco: Public Library of Science. Retrieved July 07, 2013 from
Schradie, J. (2011). “The digital production gap: The digital divide and Web 2.0 collide”. In Poetics, 34 (4-5). Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V..
Peña-López, I. (2006). The e-readiness layers: thresholds and relationships. Communication given in Egham, September 15th, 2006 at the ICT4D Symposium organized by the Royal Holloway University of London. Egham: Royal Holloway University of London. Retrieved September 15, 2006 from
Heeks, R. & Kenny, C.J. (2002). The Economics of ICTs and Global Inequality: Convergence or Divergence for Developing Countries?. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.10a/2002. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved May 08, 2008 from
The Economist . London: The Economist.
Selwyn, N. (2010). The educational significance of social media – a critical perspective. keynote debate at Ed-Media conference 2010, Toronto, 28th June to 2nd July. Toronto: Selwyn. Retrieved June 03, 2010 from
Bet, G., Cristia, J. & Ibarrarán, P. (2014). The Effects of Shared School Technology Access on Students’ Digital Skills in Peru. IDB Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP-476. New York: Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved January 18, 2014 from
the encyclopaedia of informal education . London: YMCA George Williams College, London.
Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). “The Era of Open Innovation”. In MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2003, 35-41. Cambridge: MIT Sloan School of Management.
Keen, A. (2008). “The Foolishness of Crowds”. In Democracy, Spring 2008, (8), 78-83. Washington, DC: Democracy, a Journal of Ideas, Inc.. Retrieved May 29, 2008 from
Free Software Foundation (1996). The Free Software Definition. [online]: Free Software Foundation. Retrieved June 27, 2006 from
Lessig, L. (2001). The Future of Ideas. New York: Vintage.
Weiser, P.J.W. (2009). The Future of Internet Regulation. Boulder: University of Colorado Law School. Retrieved March 01, 2009 from
Downes, S. (2008). “The Future of Online Learning: Ten Years On”. In Downes, S., Half an Hour, Sunday, November 16, 2008. Moncton: Stephen Downes. Retrieved November 17, 2008 from
Fox, S., Anderson, J.Q. & Rainie, L. (2005). The Future of the Internet. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from
Zittrain, J. (2008). The Future of the Internet – and How to Stop It. New Haven: Yale University Press.
OECD (2008). The Future of the Internet Economy: A statistical profile. Statistical profile prepared for the OECD Ministerial meeting on the Future of the Internet Economy taking place in Seoul on 17-18 June.. Paris: OECD. Retrieved June 17, 2008 from
Anderson, J.Q. & Rainie, L. (2006). The Future of the Internet II. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from
Anderson, J.Q. & Rainie, L. (2008). The Future of the Internet III. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved December 15, 2008 from
Zittrain, J. (2006). “The Generative Internet”. In Harvard Law Review, May 2006, 119 (7), 1974-2040. Cambridge: Harvard University. Retrieved July 16, 2007 from
Mott, J. (2010). The Genius of "And". Reconciling the Enterprise and the Personal Learning Network. EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative 2010 Annual Meeting, January 20, 2010. Austin: Educause. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from
Katz, J.E. & Subramanian, R. (Eds.) (forthcoming). The Global Flow of Information. New York: NYU Press.
Pilat, D. (2004). The ICT productivity paradox: insights from micro data. Economic Studies No. 38, 2004/1. Paris: OECD.


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