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Anderson, J.Q. & Rainie, L. (2006). The Future of the Internet II. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Future_of_Internet_2006.pdf
Archibugi, D. & Coco, A. (2003). A New Indicator of Technological Capabilities for Developed and Developing Countries (ArCo). Research Paper Series, Vol. 15, No. 44 January 2004. Rome: CEIS Tor Vergata.
Barnes, P. (2006). Capitalism 3.0. A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.. Retrieved July 10, 2007 from http://capitalism3.com/files/Capitalism_3.0_Peter_Barnes.pdf
Barzilai-Nahon, K., Rafaeli, S. & Ahituv, N. (2004). Measuring Gaps in Cyberspace: Constructing a comprehensive digital divide index. Workshop on Measuring the Information Society, the conference of Internet Research 5, Brighton, UK, September 2004. Brighton.
Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web. New York: HarperCollins.
Best, M.L. & Wade, K.W. (2005). The Internet and Democracy: Global Catalyst or Democratic Dud?. Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2005-12. Cambridge: Berkman Center for Internet & Society.
Bimber, B. & Davis, R. (2003). Campaigning Online. The Internet in U.S. Elections. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bindé, J. (Coord.) (2005). Towards knowledge societies: UNESCO world report. UNESCO reference works series. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved March 09, 2006 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001418/141843e.pdf
Bonilha, C. (2003). DAI – Digital Access Index. Brazilian Breakdown. São Paulo: Brampton Telecom.
Bonilha, C. (2007). DAI – Digital Access Index. Brazil: 2006 Update. São Paulo: Brampton Telecom.
Bridges.org (2002). e-Readiness overview. Cape Town: Bridges.org. Retrieved July 12, 2005 from http://www.bridges.org/node/331
Bridges.org (2002). Real Access / Real Impact Criteria. Cape Town: Bridges.org. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from http://www.bridges.org/Real_Access
Campbell, D. (2001). “Can the digital divide be contained?”. In International Labour Review, The Digital Divide: Employment and Development Implications, 140 (2), 119-141. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Clement, A. & Shade, L.R. (1998). The Access Rainbow: Conceptualizing Universal Access to the Information/Communicatioins Infrastructure. Information Policy Research Program, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto. Working Paper No. 10. Toronto: IPRP University of Toronto. Retrieved January 22, 2007 from http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/research/iprp/publications/wp/wp10.html
Cobo Romaní, C. & Pardo Kuklinski, H. (2007). Planeta Web 2.0. Inteligencia colectiva o medios fast food. Barcelona / México DF: Grup de Recerca d’Interaccions Digitals, Universitat de Vic. Retrieved October 15, 2007 from http://www.planetaweb2.net/
Compaine, B.M. (1986). “Information Gaps: Myth or Reality?”. In Telecommunications Policy, 10 (1), 5-12. London: Elsevier.
Compaine, B.M. (2001). “Declare the War Won”. In Compaine, B.M. (Ed.), The Digital Divide. Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth?, chapter 14, 315-335. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Daniel, J. & West, P. (2006). “From Digital Divide to Digital Dividend: What Will It Take?”. In Innovate, 2 (5). North Miami Beach: Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved May 31, 2006 from http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=252
DiMaggio, P. & Hargittai, E. (2001). From the ’Digital Divide’ to Digital Inequality: Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases. Working Paper #15. Princeton: Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Princeton University. Retrieved August 28, 2006 from http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP15%20-%20DiMaggio%2BHargittai.pdf
Escher, T., Margetts, H., Petricek, V. & Cox, I. (2006). Governing from the Centre? Comparing the Nodality of Digital Governments. Prepared for delivery at the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Philadelphia: American Political Science Association. Retrieved July 10, 2007 from http://www.governmentontheweb.org/downloads/papers/Margetts_et_al_APSA_2006.pdf
European Commission (2005). i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52005DC0229:EN:NOT
European Commission (2005). Working together for growth and jobs - A new start for the Lisbon Strategy. Communication to the Spring European Council. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52005DC0024:EN:NOT
European Commission (2006). Bridging the Broadband Gap. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved March 24, 2007 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0129:FIN:EN:PDF
European Commission (2008). Development of broadband access in Europe. Accompanying document to the Communication on future networks and the internet. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved October 06, 2008 from http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/i2010/docs/future_internet/method_2008_survey_idate.pdf
Fox, S. (2005). Digital Divisions. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved January 07, 2008 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Digital_Divisions_Oct_5_2005.pdf
Fox, S., Anderson, J.Q. & Rainie, L. (2005). The Future of the Internet. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Future_of_Internet.pdf
Fox, S. (2008). Privacy Implications of Fast, Mobile Internet Access. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved February 15, 2008 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Privacy_Fast_Mobile_Access.pdf
Franklin, T. & Van Harmelen, M. (2007). Web 2.0 for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. London: The Observatory of Borderless Higher Education. Retrieved May 14, 2008 from http://www.obhe.ac.uk/resources-new/pdf/651.Pdf
Freedom House (2008). Freedom in the World 2008. Washington, DC: Freedom House. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2008
Fumero, A. & Roca, G. (2007). Web 2.0. Madrid: Fundación Orange. Retrieved April 25, 2007 from http://www.fundacionauna.com/areas/25_publicaciones/publi_253_11.asp
Gillmor, D. (2004). We The Media. Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media.
Gillwald, A. (Dir.) (2004). Fair Access to Internet Report. Johannesburg: The Link Centre. Retrieved August 30, 2008 from http://www.researchictafrica.net/images/upload/FAIR%2018.03.04%20v17.pdf
Gilster, P. (1997). Digital Literacy. New York: Wiley and Computer Publishing.
Goswami, D. (2006). NRI vs DOI. Lyngby: LIRNE.NET. Retrieved April 11, 2008 from http://www.regulateonline.org/content/view/827/74
Goswami, D. (2007). Grasping the Internet: Measuring the beast. Presentation at the WDR Expert Forum, Marc 2, 2007, Singapore. Lyngby: LIRNE.NET. Retrieved March 07, 2007 from http://www.lirneasia.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/grasping-the-internet-divakar-goswami.pdf
Gray, V. (2008). Revision of core indicators A1-A12 infrastructure & access. Presentation at the 2008 Global Event on Measuring the Information Society. Geneva: ITU. Retrieved June 06, 2008 from http://new.unctad.org/upload/Global%20Event%202008/Session3_ITU_infrastructure.ppt
Greenwood, J. (1999). “The Third Industrial Revolution: Technology, Productivity, and Income Inequality”. In Economic Review, (Q II), 2-12. Cleveland: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Retrieved May 20, 2006 from http://www.clevelandfed.org/Research/review99/third.pdf
Gunkel, D.J. (2003). “Second thoughts: toward a critique of the digital divide”. In New Media & Society, 5 (4), 499-522. London: SAGE Publications.
Hargittai, E. (2003). “The Digital Divide and What To Do About It”. In Jones, D.C. (Ed.), New Economy Handbook, Chapter 35. San Diego: Academic Press.
Heeks, R. (2002). Failure, Success and Improvisation of Information Systems Projects in Developing Countries. Development Informatics Working Paper Series, No.11/2002. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved January 04, 2006 from http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/di_wp11.htm
Heeks, R. (2005). “ICTs and the MDGs: On the Wrong Track?”. In i4d, i4d - Information for Development, Vol. III No.3 February 2005. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from http://www.i4donline.net/feb05/feb05.pdf
Heeks, R. (2005). Offshoring to Africa. DIG eDevelopment Briefings, No.8/2005. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved May 24, 2006 from http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/short/DIGBriefing8Offshore.doc
Heeks, R. (2005). Reframing the Role of Telecentres in Development. DIG eDevelopment Briefings, No.2/2005. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved May 24, 2006 from http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/short/DIGBriefing2Telecentres.doc
Heeks, R. (2005). World Summit on the Information Society: What Did it Achieve for ICTs and Development, What Did it Ignore?. DIG eDevelopment Briefings, No.11/2005. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management. Retrieved May 24, 2006 from http://www.sed.manchester.ac.uk/idpm/publications/wp/di/short/DIGBriefing11WSIS.doc
Hood, C.C. & Margetts, H. (2007). The Tools of Government in the Digital Age. Basingstoke: Palgrave Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan.
Horrigan, J.B. (2007). A Typology of Information and Communication Technology Users. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 10, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_ICT_Typology.pdf
Horrigan, J.B. (2007). Broadband: What’s All the Fuss About?. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved October 18, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/BroadBand%20Fuss.pdf
Hudson, H. (1994). “Universal service in the Information Age”. In Telecommunications Policy, 18 (8), 658-667. London: Elsevier.
IDC (2006). Information Society Index 2006. Framingham: IDC.
International Telecommunication Union (2005). Key indicators of the telecommunication/ICT sector. Presented at the fourth World Telecommunication/ICT indicators meeting (Geneva, February 2005). Geneva: ITU. Retrieved April 11, 2008 from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/IndDef_e_v2005.doc
Jensen, M. & Mahan, A.K. (2007). Toward a Single ICT Index. Considerations for the Formulation of a Single ICT Index for the ITU. [mimeo] Presented at the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting, 13-15 December 2007. Geneva: ITU. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://www.itu.int/md/dologin_md.asp?lang=en&id=D06-DAP2B.1.3-C-0004!!PDF-E
Kennard, W.E. (1999). “Equality in the Information Age”. In Federal Communications Law Journal, 51 (3), 553-556. Bloomington: Indiana University School of Law. Retrieved March 12, 2007 from http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v51/no3/KenMac1.PDF
Kerckhove, D.d. (2005). The Biases of Electricity. Inaugural Lecture of the UOC 2005-2006 Academic Year. Barcelona: UOC. Retrieved January 17, 2007 from http://www.uoc.edu/inaugural05/eng/kerckhove.pdf
Kohut, A. (Dir.) (2007). Pew Global Attitudes Survey 2007. Washington, DC: Pew Global Attitudes Project. Retrieved October 10, 2007 from http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=258
Larsson, L. (2000). Digital Literacy Checklist. Draft version 2.0.2. Washington: University of Washington. Retrieved March 17, 2006 from http://courses.washington.edu/hs590a/modules/69/diglit/diglit#1
Lenhart, A. (2000). Who’s Not Online. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved May 21, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Pew_Those_Not_Online_Report.pdf
Lenhart, A. & Madden, M. (2005). Teen Content Creators and Consumers. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved July 13, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Teens_Content_Creation.pdf
Lenhart, A. & Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved July 07, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bloggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006.pdf
Lessig, L. (1999). Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.
Lessig, L. (2004). Free Culture. New York: The Penguin Press.
Liang, L. (2004). A Guide To Open Content Licences. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart Institute. Retrieved June 09, 2006 from http://pzwart.wdka.hro.nl/mdr/pubsfolder/opencontentpdf
Luyt, B. (2004). “Who benefits from the digital divide?”. In First Monday, August 2004, 9 (8). [online]: First Monday. Retrieved March 07, 2008 from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_8/luyt/index.html
Madden, M. & Fox, S. (2006). Riding the Waves of “Web 2.0”. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved January 23, 2007 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Web_2.0.pdf
Mansell, R. (2002). “From Digital Divides to Digital Entitlements in Knowledge Societies”. In Current Sociology, 50 (3), 407-426. London: SAGE Publications.
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Milner, H.V. (2006). “The Digital Divide: The Role of Political Institutions in Technology Diffusion”. In Comparative Political Studies, Volume 39, (No 2, March 200), pp 176-199. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
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Nielsen, J. (2006). Digital Divide: The Three Stages. Alertbox, November 20, 2006. [online]: useit.com. Retrieved February 06, 2007 from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/digital-divide.html
Norris, P. (2000). The Worldwide Digital Divide: Information Poverty, the Internet and Development. Paper for the Annual Meeting of the Political Studies Association of the UK, London School of Economics and Political Science. Cambridge: Harvard University. Retrieved April 20, 2006 from http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.pnorris.shorenstein.ksg/acrobat/psa2000dig.pdf
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OECD (2003). Seizing the benefits of ICT in a digital economy. Report prepared for the Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level. Paris: OECD. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/42/2507572.pdf
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